“13.05.61 Charles Bowles, interim secretary to the President, wrote a Memorandum for President [John F.] Kennedy to determine whether to apply to Cuba the Mutual Defense Assistance Act, known as the Battle Act. Its terms provide that it could be enforced upon any nation threatening U.S. security and its enforcement would require the President to notify countries receiving foreign assistance about Cuba’s inclusion in this law and request their cooperation to impose an embargo on arms and strategic materials to Cuba, while it established the mandatory cutoff of all foreign assistance to any country refusing cooperation, despite being aware of these provisions.” [Pro Embargo]

“John F. Kennedy (D). Timeline,” Cuba versus Blockade: Cuban People’s website, 2007